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Emilia Campos de Carvalho

Emilia Campos de Carvalho

University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Title: Using the nursing outcome "Tissue Integrity: skin and mucous membranes" to measure the effect of foot reflexology on feet of people susceptible to skin rupture


Biography: Emilia Campos de Carvalho


This randomized clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on the feet of 78 people susceptible to skin rupture, by the nursing outcome Tissue Integrity: skin and mucous membranes1. In the initial phase, the feet of the participants were evaluated by 20 indicators2 (score 1 to 5). The score of the nursing outcome was determined by the average of their indicators' scores. Participants were randomized into two groups: Intervention  (n = 40), that received 16 sessions of foot reflexology in the eight-week period; Control  (n = 38), that received usual care. In the final phase, the score of the nursing outcome was determined again. The Intervention Group presented, at the beginning of the study, the average score of 4.64 (SD = 0.28) and, at the end, of 4.90 (SD = 0.13); the Control Group presented, in the initial phase, average score of 4.66 (SD = 0.22); and, in the final phase, of 4.50 (SD = 0.26). There was equivalent in the scores presented by the groups (intergroup analysis) at the beginning (p = 0.951), and differences between them at the end (p < 0.001).  When comparing the two periods (intragroup analysis), there was an increase in the Intervention Group scores (p < 0.001) and decreased in the Control Group scores (p < 0.001). After the intervention, participants of the Intervention Group showed improvement and the participants of the Control Group showed worsening in the score of the nursing outcome "Tissue Integrity: skin and mucous membranes".